Puritanism in American Literature Essay - Words | Bartleby


puritans literature

Abstract American Puritanism is the dominant factor in American life and was the most enduring shaping influences in American thought and life. This paper this paper accounts for what Puritanism embraces and its influence to American literature in the sense of history, self and style. Genres Early literature written by Puritans in America often appeared as first person narratives in the form of journals and diaries. Early American colonists wrote their accounts of immigration, settling in America, and day-to-day life in journals to pass their stories down. Jan 18,  · Puritanism in American Literature The Puritans had a large influence in American literature and still influence moral judgment and religious beliefs in the United States to this day. Puritan writing was used to glorify God and to relate God more directly to .

New England Puritan culture and recreation - Wikipedia

The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England of Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of England had not been fully reformed and needed to become more Protestant. Puritans were dissatisfied with the limited extent of the English Reformation and with the Church of England's toleration of certain practices associated with the Roman Catholic Church.

They formed and identified with various religious groups advocating greater purity of worship and doctrinepuritans literature, as well as personal and corporate piety. Puritans adopted a Reformed theology and, in that sense, were Calvinists as were many of their earlier opponents. In church polity, some advocated separation from all other established Christian denominations in favour of autonomous gathered churches.

These Separatist and independent strands of Puritanism became prominent in the s, when the supporters of a Presbyterian polity in the Westminster Assembly were unable to forge a new English national church. By the late s, Puritans were in alliance with the growing commercial world, with the parliamentary opposition to the royal prerogativepuritans literature with the Scottish Presbyterians with whom they had much in common.

Consequently, they became a major political force in England and came to power as a result of the First Puritans literature Civil War — Almost all Puritan clergy left the Church of England after puritans literature restoration of the monarchy in and the Uniformity Act, puritans literature.

Many continued to practice their faith in nonconformist denominations, especially in Congregationalist and Presbyterian churches. Puritanism was never a formally defined religious division within Protestantism, and the term Puritan itself was rarely used after the turn of the 18th century. Some Puritan ideals, including the formal rejection of Roman Catholicism, were incorporated into the doctrines of the Church of England; others were absorbed into the many Protestant denominations that emerged in the late 17th and early 18th centuries in Puritans literature and Britain.

The Congregational churches, widely considered to be puritans literature part of the Reformed tradition, are descended from the Puritans. In the 17th century, puritans literature, the word Puritan was a term applied not to just one group but to many. Historians still debate a precise definition of Puritanism.

Thomas Fullerin his Church Historydates the first use of the word to Puritans literature Matthew Parker of that time used it and precisian with a sense similar to the modern stickler, puritans literature. Those labeled Puritan called themselves terms such puritans literature "the godly", "saints", puritans literature, "professors", or "God's children", puritans literature. In its widest historical sense, the term Puritan includes both groups. Puritans should not be confused with more radical Protestant groups of the 16th and 17th centuries, such as Puritans literatureSeekersand Familists who believed that individuals could be directly guided by the Holy Spirit and prioritized direct revelation over the Bible.

In current English, puritan often means "against pleasure". In such usage, hedonism and puritanism are antonyms. Peter Gay writes of the Puritans' standard reputation for "dour prudery" as a "misreading that went unquestioned in the nineteenth century", commenting how unpuritanical they were in favour of married sexuality, and in opposition to the Catholic veneration of virginityciting Edward Taylor and John Cotton.

Puritanism has a historical puritans literature over a period of a century, puritans literature, followed by fifty years of development in New England.

It changed character and emphasis almost decade-by-decade over that time. Elizabethan Puritanism contended with the Elizabethan religious settlementpuritans literature little to show for it. The Lambeth Articles ofpuritans literature, a high-water mark for Calvinism within the Church of England, failed to receive royal approval. The accession of James I to the English throne brought the Millenary Petitiona Puritan manifesto of for reform of the English church, but James wanted a religious settlement along different lines.

He called the Hampton Court Conference inand heard the teachings of four puritans literature Puritan leaders, including Laurence Chadertonbut largely sided with his bishops. He was well informed on theological matters by his education and Scottish upbringing, and he dealt shortly with the peevish legacy of Elizabethan Puritanism, pursuing an eirenic religious policy, in which he was arbiter, puritans literature.

Many of James's episcopal appointments were Puritans literature, notably James Montaguewho was an puritans literature courtier. Puritans still opposed much of the Roman Catholic summation in the Church of England, notably the Book of Common Prayer but also the use of non-secular vestments cap and gown during services, the sign of the Cross in baptism, and kneeling to receive Holy Communion.

The Puritan movement of Jacobean times became distinctive by adaptation and compromise, with the emergence of "semi-separatism", puritans literature, "moderate puritanism", puritans literature, the writings of William Bradshaw who adopted the term "Puritan" for himselfpuritans literature, and the beginnings of Puritans literature. The Puritan movement in England was riven over decades by emigration and inconsistent interpretations of Scripture, as well as some political differences that surfaced at that time.

The Fifth Monarchy Mena radical millenarian wing of Puritanism, aided puritans literature strident, popular clergy like Vavasor Powellagitated from the right wing of the movement, puritans literature, even as sectarian groups like the RantersLevellersand Quakers pulled from the left. The Westminster Assembly was called inassembling clergy of the Church of England. The Assembly was able to agree to the Westminster Confession of Faith doctrinally, a consistent Reformed theological position.

The Directory of Public Worship was made official inand the larger framework now called the Westminster Standards was adopted by the Church of Scotland. In England, the Standards were contested by Independents up to The Westminster Divineson the other hand, were divided over questions of church polity and split into factions supporting a reformed episcopacypresbyterianismcongregationalismand Erastianism, puritans literature.

Puritans literature membership of the Assembly was heavily weighted towards the Presbyterians, but Oliver Cromwell was a Puritan and an independent Congregationalist Separatist who imposed his doctrines upon them, puritans literature.

The Church of England of the Interregnum —60 was run along Presbyterian lines but never became a national Presbyterian church, such as existed in Scotland, and England was not the theocratic state which leading Puritans had called for as "godly rule". At the time of the English Restoration inthe Savoy Conference was called to determine a puritans literature religious settlement for England and Wales, puritans literature. Under the Act of Uniformitythe Church of England was restored to its pre- Civil War constitution with only minor changes, puritans literature, and the Puritans found themselves sidelined.

Puritans literature traditional estimate of historian Calamy is that around 2, Puritan clergy left the Church in the " Great Ejection " of The Dissenters divided themselves from all Christians in the Church of England and established their own Separatist congregations in the s and s. An estimated 1, of the ejected clergy continued in some fashion as ministers of religion, according to Richard Baxter.

There followed a period in which schemes of "comprehension" were proposed, under which Presbyterians could be brought back into the Church of England, but nothing resulted from them. The Puritans literature opposed the court puritans literature policies and argued that the Dissenters should be allowed to worship separately from the established Church, and this position ultimately prevailed when the Toleration Act was passed in the wake of the Glorious Revolution in This permitted the licensing of Dissenting ministers and the building of chapels.

The term " Nonconformist " generally replaced the term "Dissenter" from the middle of the 18th century. Some Puritans left for New Englandparticularly in the years aftersupporting the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and other settlements among the northern colonies, puritans literature. The large-scale Puritan immigration to New England ceased bywith around 21, having moved across the Atlantic.

This English-speaking population in America did not all consist of original colonists, since many puritans literature to England shortly after arriving on the continent, but it produced more than 16 million descendants.

Puritan hegemony lasted for at least a century. That century can be broken down into three parts: the generation of John Cotton and Richard Puritans literature—62 from the founding to the Restoration, years of virtual independence and nearly autonomous development; the generation of Increase Mather—89 from the Restoration and the Halfway Covenant to the Glorious Revolution, years of struggle with the British crown; and the generation of Cotton Mather— from the overthrow of Edmund Andros in which Cotton Mather played a part and the new charter, mediated by Increase Mather, to puritans literature death of Cotton Mather.

Puritanism broadly refers to a diverse religious reform movement in Britain committed to puritans literature continental Reformed tradition.

They believed that all of their beliefs should be based on the Biblewhich they considered to be divinely inspired. The concept of covenant was extremely important to Puritans, puritans literature, and covenant theology was central to their beliefs. After the fall of manhuman nature was corrupted by original sin and unable to fulfill the covenant of works, since each person puritans literature violated God's law as expressed in the Ten Commandments, puritans literature.

As sinners, every person deserved damnation. Puritans shared with other Calvinists a belief in double predestinationpuritans literature, that some people the elect were destined by God to receive grace and salvation while others were destined for Hell. According to covenant theology, Christ's sacrifice on the cross made possible the covenant of grace, by which those selected by God could be saved.

Puritans believed in unconditional election and irresistible grace —God's grace was given freely without condition to the elect and could not be refused. Covenant theology made individual salvation deeply personal. It held that God's predestination was not "impersonal and mechanical" but was a "covenant of grace" that one entered into by faith, puritans literature.

Therefore, being a Christian could never be reduced to simple "intellectual acknowledgment" of the truth of Christianity. Puritans agreed "that the effectual call of each elect saint of God would always come as an individuated personal encounter with God's promises".

The process by which the elect are brought from spiritual death to spiritual life regeneration was described as conversion, puritans literature. Over time, however, Puritan theologians developed a framework for authentic religious puritans literature based on their own experiences puritans literature well as those of their parishioners. Eventually, puritans literature, Puritans came to regard a specific conversion experience as an essential mark of one's election.

The Puritan conversion experience was commonly described as occurring in discrete phases. It began with a preparatory phase designed to produce contrition for sin through introspectionBible study and listening to preaching. This was followed by humiliationpuritans literature, when the sinner realized that he or she was helpless to break free from sin and that their good works could never earn forgiveness.

For some Puritans, this was a dramatic experience and they referred to it as being born again. Confirming that such a conversion had actually happened often required prolonged and continual introspection, puritans literature.

Historian Perry Miller wrote that the Puritans "liberated men from the treadmill of indulgences and penancespuritans literature, but puritans literature them on the iron couch of introspection". Puritan clergy wrote many spiritual guides to help their parishioners pursue personal piety and sanctification. Too much emphasis on one's good works could puritans literature criticized for being too close to Arminianismpuritans literature, and too much emphasis on subjective religious experience could be criticized as Antinomianism.

Puritans literature Puritans relied on both personal religious experience and self-examination to assess their spiritual condition. Puritanism's experiential piety would be inherited by the evangelical Protestants of the 18th century.

The sermon was central to Puritan public worship. The sermon was not only a means of puritans literature education; Puritans believed it was the most common way puritans literature God prepared a sinner's heart for conversion. They rejected confirmation as unnecessary.

Puritans unanimously rejected the Roman Puritans literature doctrine of baptismal regenerationbut they disagreed among themselves on the effects of baptism and its relationship to regeneration. Most Puritans practiced infant baptismbut a minority held credobaptist beliefs. Those who baptized infants understood it through the lens puritans literature covenant theology, believing that baptism had replaced circumcision as a sign of the covenant and marked a child's admission into the visible church.

In "A Discourse on the Nature of Regeneration", Stephen Charnock distinguished regeneration from "external baptism" writing that baptism "confers not grace" but rather is a means of conveying the grace of regeneration only "when the [Holy] Spirit is pleased to operate with it". Therefore, puritans literature, one cannot assume that baptism produces regeneration. The Westminster Confession states that the grace of baptism is only effective for those who are among the elect; however, its effects are not tied to the moment of baptism but lies dormant until one experiences conversion later in life.

Puritans rejected both Roman Catholic transubstantiation and Lutheran sacramental union teachings that Christ is physically present in the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper. Instead, puritans literature, Puritans embraced the Reformed doctrine of real spiritual presencebelieving that in the Lord's Supper the faithful receive Christ spiritually. In agreement with Thomas Cranmerthe Puritans stressed "that Christ comes down to us in the sacrament puritans literature His Puritans literature and Spirit, offering Himself as our spiritual food and drink".

While the Puritans were united in their goal of furthering the English Reformation, they were always divided over issues of puritans literature and church polityspecifically questions relating to the manner of organizing congregations, how individual congregations should relate with one another and whether established national churches were scriptural.

The episcopalians known as the prelatical party were conservatives who supported retaining bishops if those leaders supported reform and agreed to share power with local churches, puritans literature. In addition, these Puritans called for a renewal of preaching, pastoral care and Christian discipline within the Church of England. Like the episcopalians, the presbyterians agreed that puritans literature should be a national church but one structured on the model of the Church of Scotland.

The Westminster Assembly proposed the creation of a presbyterian system, but the Long Parliament left implementation to local authorities. As a result, the Church of England never developed a complete presbyterian hierarchy.


Puritans - Wikipedia


puritans literature


The Puritans had a significant cultural and political impact on early American life. Puritanism lasted until the late s, giving way to ideas imported from Enlightenment Europe and to a cultural. The Puritan culture of the New England colonies of the seventeenth century was influenced by Calvinist theology, which believed in a "just, almighty God," and a lifestyle of pious, consecrated actions. The Puritans participated in their own forms of recreational activity, including visual arts, literature, and music. The Puritans were educated and literate, and their culture was broadly based. Puritanism, a religious reform movement in the late 16th and 17th centuries that was known for the intensity of the religious experience that it fostered. Puritans’ efforts contributed to both civil war in England and the founding of colonies in America. Learn more about Puritanism, its history, and beliefs.