Early Modern literature - Wikipedia

 

early modern period literature

Early Modern => Renaissance In England, the period between He The rebirth period of letters and arts stimulated by the recov The commitment to the search for truth and morality through hu Describes Queen Elizabeth's two body state. First body (Physi Early Modern Early Modern . The early to mid 18th century was a period during which satire flourished in England (and Ireland). The main authors are Joseph Addison (), John Dryden (), Alexander Pope (), Sir Richard Steele () and the Irish writer Jonathan Swift (), the latter being particularly concerned with questions of language and entertaining generally conservative views on . Jun 18,  · Gothic fiction emerged in England when Horace Walpole published The Castle of Otranto (), continued in vogue through the early s, and enjoyed Congreve, William ( - ) English dramatist, b. near Leeds, educated at Trinity Author: Winnie Shyam.


The Early Modern Period | taccbhinis.cf


Few historical labels conceal so much uncertainty as "early modern Europe. The three-century difference of opinion over when the period begins equals the length of the period itself, as most of these historians understand it; one historian sees the period ending almost a century before another's starting point. The present article defines the period as extending from to Thus envisioned, it starts with the last spasms of Europe's religious wars; these opened a period of extreme political violence across the continent, and coincided with a variety of other disruptions of Europeans' daily lives.

The early eighteenth century brought this period of instability to a close. By religion had declined as a factor in European politics, and early modern period literature Enlightenment's critique of organized religion had begun. The last of Louis XIV 's great wars ended inopening a period of relative peace, and by happy coincidence Europe's most frightening early modern period literature, the plague, disappeared from the Continent after A series of other changes in European social organization added to the sense of relative security that would characterize the eighteenth century.

Divergences of this order partly reflect historians' use of "early modern" as a handy catch-all term for a confusing period, early modern period literature, whose contours shift according to national and thematic perspectives; but they also result from important interpretive differences.

Historians' understanding of the early modern period has been affected by their different views of modernity itself, whose foundations are commonly seen to have been established at some point between the Renaissance and the French Revolution ; differences of periodization reflect different ideas about the crucial moments in modernity's unfolding.

Such uncertainties are the less easily resolved in that seventeenth-century men and women already believed in their own modernity. In the French writer and architect Charles Perrault launched the "quarrel of the ancients and the moderns" with the claim that recent artists and writers had advanced far beyond anything achieved in the ancient world, early modern period literature.

His claims with regard to the arts stimulated hot debate, but by that time recent advances had made modernism self-evidently persuasive in the domains of science and philosophy. Especially since World War IIhistorians of the early modern period have interested themselves in a second set of interpretive concerns, in some tension with this interest in finding the roots of modernity.

Europeans' own experiences of industrialization and their interest in economic development elsewhere encouraged historians to reflect on the break between preindustrial and industrial societies, and to see in industrialization the crucial difference between modern and premodern worlds. Such interpretations set the early modern period within a much larger premodern era, and indeed suggested that the break between medieval and early modern mattered far less than the historical changes of the later eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the early phase of the industrial revolution.

During the s and s, early modern period literature, European historians working within several independent national traditions offered interpretations of this kind, seeing in the age of industrial and political revolutions around a break in human history more important than any since the invention of fixed agriculture.

In France Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie used the phrase "immobile history" to suggest that society changed little between the mid-fourteenth and the mid-eighteenth centuries. Stagnant agricultural technology underlay this immobility, for food production set the limits to economic enterprise of all kinds, early modern period literature. Population rose in good times, eventually approaching the limit of society's ability to feed itself; since food prices rose with early modern period literature, discretionary income that might have been spent on industrial products or long-term investments disappeared.

Famine, war, and disease often conjoined eventually cut population back, freeing resources and according the survivors a temporary prosperity, before the whole cycle of growth and crisis began again.

Le Roy Ladurie was concerned mainly with France, but his work coincided with similar ideas that were developed in Germany by such historians as Werner Conze and Reinhart Koselleck. By comparison with the momentous changes aroundearly modern period literature, differences such as that between medieval and early modern periods could have little importance. During the same early modern period literature, the English historian Peter Laslett likewise developed a vision of the early modern period as sharply set off from modernity, early modern period literature, a "world we have lost" in his famous phrasegoverned by specific forms of social and familial organization, early modern period literature, and therefore marked by specific worldviews as well.

Although these French, early modern period literature, German, and British approaches to the early modern period differ in significant ways, if only because they deal mainly with their own national histories, they share an emphasis on the gap between the early modern period and our own and see that difference as extending to the most fundamental experiences of human life.

Another feature common to all three approaches is an interest in the biological constraints on early modern lives, early modern period literature. Muscle-power, whether human or animal, set the basic limits to agricultural and industrial production, and people had limited protection against either microbes, which brutally cut back population, or their own reproductive drives, which in good times led to rapid population growth.

For these reasons, early modern period literature, historical demography was a crucial companion science to the social history written in the s and s, promising insights into the workings of premodern social structures. In many ways the historiography undertaken by Le Roy Ladurie and his contemporaries still sets the agenda for studies of the early modern period; but since historians' interpretive stances have again shifted significantly in response to changes in several fields of research.

Neither the industrial revolution nor the French Revolution seems so absolute a break as it once did. Economic historians have lowered their estimates of nineteenth-century economic growth, rendering images of economic "take off" inappropriate and drawing attention to the continuing importance of preindustrial modes of production into the twentieth century.

Revisionist historians have similarly reevaluated the French Revolution ofwhich they present as having far less impact on European society than was once believed. While these scholars have downplayed the extent of change at the end of the early modern period, others have found evidence of more change within the period itself than was once thought to have occurred. Historians have become more aware that even the period's most powerful biological forces were mediated through complex mechanisms of social and cultural organization.

As a result, the concept of a technological ceiling on early modern economic development has lost much of its persuasiveness, early modern period literature, for early modern society operated far early modern period literature whatever that ceiling may have early modern period literature. Revisions and queries like these have made the early modern period seem more complex and much less static than it did to earlier historians.

To historians of the French school, inspired especially by Le Roy Ladurie, social crisis dominated the period to Even historians who question his neo-Malthusian interpretation find crisis an important theme in the period, for early modern Europeans had frequent and horrific experiences of famine, early modern period literature, and war.

Plague, which had reappeared in Europe in after several centuries' absence, remained endemic and virulent, producing major epidemics in most regions every generation or so.

The Milan epidemic of — killed 60, people, 46 percent of the city's population; the London epidemic of — killed 70, For reasons that remain mysterious, however, the disease receded after the s, and after a last, terrible epidemic in —, centering on the French port city of Marseilles, it disappeared from Europe altogether. The history of famine followed a roughly similar chronology.

Food shortages led to actual starvation as early modern period literature as the mid-seventeenth century in England, and still later in France: the great famine of — is estimated to have reduced French population by 10 percent.

Food shortages continued in the eighteenth century, early modern period literature, and a last great subsistence crisis came in the mid-nineteenth century; but Europeans' experiences of food shortage after were essentially different from that of the seventeenth century. Beforefor instance, French food prices might triple or quadruple in years of harvest failure; eighteenth-century crises led to a doubling of prices, still a serious burden for consumers, but far less likely to bring outright starvation, early modern period literature.

Freed from the experience of starvation and plague though certainly not from many other natural catastropheseighteenth-century Europeans could view early modern period literature world with significantly more confidence than their early modern predecessors.

An abrupt decline in military violence after meant that eighteenth-century Europeans also had a fundamentally different experience of warfare, early modern period literature. Organized violence had marked the early modern period to an unprecedented degree, with conflicts extending across the Continent from west to east and south to north. With truce only between andearly modern period literature, Spain and the northern Netherlands fought from untila conflict that also touched Spanish Italy where troops were recruited and organized and parts of Switzerland through which they had to march to reach the northern battlefields.

Spanish troops also attempted to invade England inassisted the Catholic side during the French Wars of Religion in —, and invaded northern France in ; after some skirmishing in the s and s, Spain and France returned to all-out war between and Meanwhile the Thirty Years' War — embroiled central Europe in the most destructive of the century's conflicts.

The small German states fought one another, their overlord the Austrian Habsburg emperors, and a series of outside powers—Denmark, early modern period literature, Sweden, France, and Spain—that had joined in to secure territorial gain and to defend the European balance of power, early modern period literature.

Relative peace prevailed during the mid-seventeenth century, despite the Anglo- Dutch Wars of the s and s and French territorial expansion in the s. But Louis XIV 's invasion of the Netherlands in opened a new round of Europewide conflict, which continued with only short breaks until Louis's armies were larger than any Europe had previously seen, and even the ethics of war seemed to have deterioriated. Under orders from Versailles, French armies systematically devastated the Palatinate insuggesting to horrified contemporaries that pillaging had become a tool of state policy, rather than a crime of angry soldiers.

The financial, demographic, and psychological effects were so exhausting that most of Europe remained at peace for a generation thereafter. Only in did the principal European powers resume their warlike habits, and then, though armies remained large and destructive, newly effective military discipline protected civilians from their worst effects.

Thus marked a genuine turning point in European social history. Measuring the social effects of seventeenth-century warfare has proven a complex historical problem. In central Europe the destructiveness was enormous and clearly visible. Over the course of the Thirty Years' War, historians have estimated, the German population dropped by 40 percent in the countryside, early modern period literature, and 33 percent in the cities; in some regions the losses were still greater.

This war was the century's greatest military disaster, but early modern period literature local conflicts might have comparable consequences: troop movements around Paris during the Fronde of the Princes in — brought a threefold increase in the region's death rates.

Combatants died in great numbers studies of one Swedish village during the Thirty Years' War show a survival early modern period literature after twenty years of 7 percent among conscripted troops ; further deaths were caused by the spread of epidemic diseases.

But war did much more damage by disrupting already fragile economies, as soldiers early modern period literature food and livestock for themselves, destroyed farms and other capital, and disrupted trade circuits. For this very reason, however, the impact of war might vary with the strength of the local economies that it touched.

Since the thirteenth century, the Low Countries and northern France had included some of Europe's great battlefields, early modern period literature, and—as they formed the border between the Habsburg and Bourbon empires—they witnessed almost continuous war during the early modern period. Yet these regions prospered, despite terrible destruction in specific regions and at specific moments. Even Spanish Flanders, which lost considerable population in the turmoil of the later sixteenth century, recovered amid the warfare of the seventeenth, and the highly vulnerable agriculture of the region continued to develop and innovate.

Political organization also played an important role in this resiliency; Dutch garrisons were so well disciplined in contrast to those of other early modern period literature that communities actually welcomed them as an economic resource. Conversely, peace was no guarantee of prosperity. Seventeenth-century Castile had almost no direct experience of war, early modern period literature, but its economy stagnated and the region lost even its ability to feed itself.

War's effects depended on its social context. Violence probably also mattered less early modern period literature the long run than war's secondary, early modern period literature, indirect effects, early modern period literature, particularly on state organization.

The early modern period was the critical point in the process that historians have called "the military revolution," a series of changes that began with the application of gunpowder to warfare in the fourteenth century.

The implications of this military technology unfolded slowly and unevenly, but by they were everywhere apparent. Armies had to be much larger and better trained, fortifications more substantial, military hardware more abundant and more carefully designed and managed. Warfare had to be better organized, with more efficient lines of command and greater subordination of individuals to collective purposes—in short something of a science. Ideally the warrior himself was to become a trained element within a bureaucratic system rather than the autonomous hero of feudal myth.

The French peacetime army had numbered 10, in ; in it numbered , early modern period literature, and during the last wars of Louis XIV it reached aboutChanges of this scale, in a period of constant international competition, required heavy governmental expenditures, and taxes rose with the size of armies.

Taxation at these levels was a heavy burden for most economies and an important cause of the economic stagnation that marked the period. After even the United Provinces, which had prospered amid the violence of the later sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, found the costs of fighting Louis XIV so overwhelming as to drive their economy into long-term decline. Well before early modern period literature, Spain's international ambitions had exhausted it. Faced with such pressures, governments tended to reduce some forms of social privilege, notably the protections against taxation enjoyed by most nobles and many commoners.

Efforts like these would receive full implementation only by the enlightened despots of the later eighteenth century, when tax immunities were challenged all across Europe, but state challenges to inherited social distinctions had already begun before Rapidly rising taxation was the principal cause of a second form of violence that gave the early modern period its air of crisis, the wave of rebellions that extended into the s.

Both ordinary people and elites participated in these movements, in ways that historians have found difficult to disentangle. Low levels of popular discontent, producing assaults on tax collectors or other governmental agents, were commonplace, but the period was also marked by much larger movements, with elaborate ideological plans. In France the Catholic Leaguea movement dominated by middle-class city dwellers, took over Paris and several other cities between and and called for radical social reforms, including an end to hereditary nobility and the institution of parliamentary controls on royal power.

The s witnessed rebellions across Europe, most dramatically in England, France, Catalonia, Portugal, and Naples, again mixing popular and upper-class participation and generating widespread calls for significant political change. The example of England, where revolutionaries finally toppled the monarch, tried him in Parliament for political crimes, and publicly executed him, provided an especially frightening example of how far rebellion might lead. Even the Dutch Republic, an apparent oasis of political calm in the seventeenth century, experienced some of the political violence characteristic of the age: in — the overthrow and political execution of the seventy-two-year-old Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, and in the mob lynching of the brothers Johan and Cornelis de Witt, whose policies were thought to have led to Louis XIV's invasion, early modern period literature.

Seventeenth-century men and women had a powerful awareness of society's explosiveness. Even the most apparently stable positions might be temporary, and ordinary people might turn savagely on once-respected leaders.

In this regard, too, the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries represented a significant break that paralleled the more secure living conditions and international peace that followed Louis XIV's reign: In the late seventeenth century, the wave of great rebellions came to an end.

Governments had become much more effective in controlling crowd violence and had begun to treat early modern period literature subjects somewhat more fairly, for example, by spreading tax burdens more evenly. At the same time, experiences like the English revolution and the Fronde had frightened elites everywhere. They were much more ready to obey governments and more wary of encouraging popular discontent.

 

Writings in the Early Modern English period

 

early modern period literature

 

Early Modern => Renaissance In England, the period between He The rebirth period of letters and arts stimulated by the recov The commitment to the search for truth and morality through hu Describes Queen Elizabeth's two body state. First body (Physi Early Modern Early Modern . The early to mid 18th century was a period during which satire flourished in England (and Ireland). The main authors are Joseph Addison (), John Dryden (), Alexander Pope (), Sir Richard Steele () and the Irish writer Jonathan Swift (), the latter being particularly concerned with questions of language and entertaining generally conservative views on . The history of literature of the Early modern period (16th, 17th and partly 18th century literature), or Early Modern literature, succeeds Medieval literature, and in Europe in particular Renaissance literature. In Europe, the Early Modern period lasts roughly from to , spanning the Baroque period and ending with the Age of Enlightenment and the wars of the French Revolution.